In brief January 27th 2014
Effects of hypocaloric diets with different glycemic indexes on endothelial function and glycemic variability in overweight and obese adult patients at increased cardiovascular risk. Buscemi S, Cosentino L, Rosafio G, Morgana M, Mattina A, Sprini D, Verga S, Rini GB. Clin Nutr. 2013 Jun;32(3):346-52
The results of this study on 40 non-diabetic obese subjects at high cardiovascular risk show that these subjects’ endothelial function and glycemic variability were improved by following a low-calorie, low-glycemic index diet (1400 to 2000 kcal per day, depending on the subjects, for 3 months), which was not the case with those on a high glycemic index diet. Weight loss was not affected in this study by the glycemic index of the food consumed.
(Intensive weight loss intervention in older individuals: results from the Action for Health in Diabetes Type 2 diabetes mellitus trial.Espeland MA, Rejeski WJ, West DS, Bray GA, Clark JM, Peters AL, Chen H, Johnson KC, Horton ES, Hazuda HP; Action for Health in Diabetes Research Group. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Jun;61(6):912-22.
Weight-loss interventions combined with greater physical activity were found here to be just as effective on overweight and obese individuals aged 65 to 76 as on younger subjects aged 45 to 64. After 4 years on a a moderately low-calorie diet (1200 to 1800 kcal, depending on the subjects) in addition to 3 hours of physical activity (fast walking) per week, the older subjects lost more weight (6.2%) than the others (5.1%). The older subjects’ HDL cholesterol levels and their waist circumference improved and a similar decrease in the HbA1c levels and systolic pressures was recorded in both age-groups.
Carbohydrate quality and quantity affect glucose and lipid metabolism during weight regain in healthy men. Lagerpusch M, Enderle J, Eggeling B, Braun W, Johannsen M, Pape D, Müller MJ, Bosy-Westphal A. J Nutr. 2013 Oct;143(10):1593-601.
After a loss of weight, the glycemic load (the carbohydrate content and the glycemic index) of the diet adopted may well affect the risk of regaining weight. In healthy males with no weight problems, a diet based on moderate carbohydrate levels with a low glycemic index had beneficial effects on the daily glycemia, the patients’ insulin sensitivity, their fasting serum triglyceride levels and fatty liver deposits, whereas a diet involving higher carbohydrate levels and a higher glycemic index had deleterious effects on all these parameters.
Change in proportional protein intake in a 10-week energy-restricted low- or high-fat diet, in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Stocks T, Taylor MA, Angquist L, Macdonald IA, Arner P, Holst C, Oppert JM, Martinez JA, Rössner S, Polak J, Langin D, Saris WH, Astrup A, Sørensen TI. Obes Facts. 2013;6(3):217-27.
The amount of fat consumed by dieting subjects is liable to affect their weight loss. It was established in a recent study, for instance, that when obese subjects (mean BMI = 35kg/m²) were deprived of 600 kcal per day for 10 weeks, those with the lowest fat intake (amounting to 20-25% of their total energy intake) and the highest proportional protein intake had lost more weight (1.1 kg more) and cholesterol (0.25mmol/l more) than those whose diets contained more fat (amounting to 40-45% of their total energy intake) and lower percentages of protein.
Gestational weight gain in relation to offspring obesity over the life course: a systematic review and bias-adjusted meta-analysis. Mamun AA, Mannan M, Doi SA. Obes Rev. 2013 Dec 9.
Gestational weight gain is thought to be a risk factor for offspring obesity. The present meta-analysis of data published during the 60s indicates that the offspring of women who gain too much weight during pregnancy run a higher risk of becoming obese: this risk is greater than 91% in children under 5 years of age, greater than 32% in the 5 to 18 age-group, and greater than 47% in those aged 18 and more. The gestational weight gain generally recommended depends on the women’s BMI prior to pregnancy: it amounts to 7 to 11.5 kg in the case of women with a BMI ranging between 25 and 29.9 kg/m² and 5 to 9 kg in that of women with a BMI >30 kg/m².