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News in brief March 24th 2014

Effects of weight loss and exercise on trunk muscle composition in older women. Alice S Ryan, Aruna Selina Harduarsingh-Permaul. J Clinical Interventions in Aging 2014:9 395–402. http://www.dovepress.com/effects-of-weight-loss-and-exercise-on-trunk-muscle-composition-in-old-peer-reviewed-article-CIA

An 8 % weight loss associated or not with physical exercise reduced the fat infiltration levels in the abdominal and spinal trunk muscles by 12 to 16 % in obese women aged 50 à 76. The loss of total adipose mass was associated with a decrease in the intramuscular adipose tissue in the trunk. 

 

Does personality affect dietary intake ? Trevor E. Lunn Ph.D. Cand., Caryl A. Nowson Ph.D., Anthony Worsley Ph.D., Susan J. Torres. Nutrition 30 (2014) 403–409. http://www.nutritionjrnl.com/article/S0899-9007(13)00390-0/abstract  

Personality is a decisive behavioural factor, which contributes to people’s eating habits in particular. A significant association was found to exist between open-mindedness and the  consumption of fruit and vegetables, conscientiousness and healthy eating habits, the ability to obey rules and compliance with medical prescriptions. Conscientiousness is associated in fact with a lower risk of obesity. 

 

Contribution of lifestyle factors to educational differences in abdominal obesity among the adult population. Luz Ma León-Muñoz, Juan L. Gutiérrez-Fisac, Pilar Guallar-Castillón, Enrique Regidor, Esther López-García, David Martínez-Gómez, Auxiliadora Graciani, José R. Banegas, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo. Clinical Nutrition 2014. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261561413002720

It was observed in this Spanish study that adults subjects’ educational level was associated with the presence of abdominal obesity. The risk of obesity run by individuals who have completed only primary education was twice as high as that of University graduates. One third of this association may be attributable to lifestyle factors such as the time spent on leisure activities and watching television and the energy intake (in women).

 

Impact of weight loss and maintenance with ad libitum diets varying in protein and glycemic index content on metabolic syndrome. Papadaki A, M Linardakis, M Plada, TM. Larsen, CT. Damsgaard, MA. van Baak, S Jebb, A F.H. Pfeiffer,J. A Martinez, T Handjieva-Darlenska, M Kunesova, C Holst, WH.M. Saris, A Astrup, A Kafatos. Nutrition 30 (2014) 410–417. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0899900713004000

A weight loss of 11 % achieved by following a low-calorie diet reduced the prevalence of metabolic syndrome by 48 % in the participants in this study. During the 6-month weight-maintenance phase, a diet based on a moderately high protein and low glycemic intake had beneficial effects on the participants’ metabolic syndrome status.

  

Effects of Diet and/or Low-Intensity Resistance Exercise Training on Arterial Stiffness, Adiposity, and Lean Mass in Obese Postmenopausal Women. Arturo Figueroa, Florence Vicil, Marcos Angel Sanchez-Gonzalez, Alexei Wong, Michael J Ormsbee, Shirin Hooshmand and Bruce Daggy. American Journal of Hypertension 26(3) March 2013. http://ajh.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/3/416.long

Twelve weeks on a low-calorie diet associated with low-intensity resistance exercise training  (slow leg movements performed for 30 minutes 3 times per week) decreased the subjects’ trunk adopisity, and hence their arterial stiffness, and improved their muscle force; whereas exercise alone neither reduced the subjects’ arterial stiffness nor increased their lean mass.

 

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