News in Brief May 26th
Effects of the glycemic index of the diet on weight loss, satiety, inflammation and other metabolic risk factors: a randomized controlled trial. Juanola-Falgarona M, Salas-Salvadó J, Ibarrola-Jurado N, Rabassa-Soler A, Díaz-López A, Guasch-Ferré M, Hernández-Alonso P, Balanza R, Bulló M. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Apr 30. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2014/04/30/ajcn.113.081216.abstract
The results of a 6-month clinical trial on 122 obese and overweight subjects on various low-calorie diets (corresponding to a 500-kcal decrease in the daily intake) showed that the BMI and insulin resistance of subjects on low glycemic index diets decreased more than those of the subjects in the other groups. At the same time, these subjects’ inflammatory and metabolic markers improved, while their hunger decreased and their satiety increased more than in subjects on diets with a high glycemic index. These findings did not reach significance level, however.
Osteoarthritis, obesity and weight loss: evidence, hypotheses and horizons - a scoping review. Bliddal H, Leeds AR, Christensen R. Obes Rev. 2014 Apr 22. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/obr.12173/abstract;jsessionid=F914C7BC7BA5B1495EB6B535FBEF4BD3.f01t04
Obese patients run a high risk of developing osteoarthritis. Achieving a weight loss amounting to 10% of the body weight should be the first target. This strategy improves the functional performances of the knees and increases the patients’ quality of life, especially when they lose weight quickly. Subsequently combining weight loss with exercise also enhances the subjects’ mobility and decreases their pain.
Effect of weight loss, exercise or both on cognition and quality of life in obese older adults. Napoli N, Shah K, Waters DL, Sinacore DR, Qualls C, Villareal DT. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Apr 30. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2014/04/30/ajcn.113.082883.abstract
In obese elderly subjects, combining weight loss with exercise has more positive effects than weight loss alone on the subjects’ fragility and improves their cognitive performances in langage and attention tests and the execution of tasks; it also decreases the cardio-metabolic risk factors. The beneficial effects of weight loss on cognition (which are due to the improved neuronal plasticity) may be mediated by enhanced sensitivity to insulin and a decrease in the detrimental inflammatory processes.
A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of eating rate on energy intake and hunger. Robinson E, Almiron-Roig E, Rutters F, de Graaf C, Forde CG, Tudur Smith C, Nolan SJ, Jebb SA. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 May 21. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2014/05/21/ajcn.113.081745.abstract
People’s eating rates are strongly associated with their energy consumption rates. Eating slowly requires less energy than eating fast, and no compensation takes place at the subsequent meal. The mechanism responsible may involve the hormones secreted during meals, gastric distension and a feeling of satiety. Reducing the eating rates may therefore constitute a useful complementary strategy to dieting.
Dietary sugars and cardiometabolic risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the effects of sugar intake on blood pressure and lipids. Te Morenga LA, Howatson AJ, Jones RM, Mann J. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 May 7. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2014/05/07/ajcn.113.081521.abstract
The results of this meta-analysis show that a high sugar intake is associated with an increase in the blood triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels and an increase in the blood pressure. These effects are independent of the effects of sugar on weight. The main cause is the high fructose content of industrially processed food, which increases the hepatic synthesis of fats.