News in brief May 5th, 2014
The association between physical activity and self-regulated eating in overweight and obese women. Carraça EV1, Silva MN, Coutinho SR, Vieira PN, Minderico CS, Sardinha LB, Teixeira PJ. Obes Facts. 2013;6(6):493-506. http://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/356449
A study conducted for 12 versus 36 months on 221 overweight/obese women showed that the mechanisms whereby physical exercise regulates subjects’ food intake are mediated by their body image and mood. The positive effects of physical exercise on body image and mood remain stable with time.
Weight rhythms: weight increases during weekends and decreases during weekdays. Orsama AL, Mattila E, Ermes M, van Gils M, Wansink B, Korhonen I. Obes Facts. 2014;7(1):36-47. http://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/356147
Eighty subjects including slim, overweight and obese subjects were measured every day in order to assess the fluctuations occurring during the week. Their weight began to increase on Saturdays and to decrease on Tuesdays. This compensatory pattern was more conspicuous in subjects who were losing weight or maintaining their weight than in those who were gaining weight. Those who compensated the most were also those who subsequently lost the most weight or managed to maintain their weight best in the long term.
Bacteria, viruses, and hypothalamic inflammation: potential new players in obesity. Wierucka-Rybak M, Bojanowska E. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2014 Mar 12;68:271-9.Dis. 2014 Apr;24(4):337-43. http://www.phmd.pl/abstracted.php?level=5&ICID=1093928
The authors review the literature on the possible contribution of gut microbiota, viruses (such as the adenovirus) and hypothalamic inflammatory processes to the mechanisms involved in obesity due to eating habits. The possible involvement of gut microbiota and inflammatory processes would account for the effects of high-fat diets on pathogenic processes and obesity.
Lifestyle Intervention involving Calorie Restriction with or without Aerobic Exercise Training improves Liver Fat in Adults with Visceral Adiposity. Eiichi Yoshimura, Hideaki Kumahara, Takuro Tobina, Takuro Matsuda, Makoto Ayabe, Akira Kiyonaga, Keizo Anzai, Yasuki Higaki, and Hiroaki Tanaka. Journal of Obesity. Volume 2014. http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2014/197216/
Moderate calorie restriction (25 kcal/kg of ideal weight per day) associated or not with physical exercise improved the weight, the fat mass and the visceral fat of adults with visceral adiposity and significantly decreased their liver fat levels. Exercise had no additional effects with respect to calorie restriction.
Renal function following three distinct weight loss dietary strategies during a 2-year randomized controlled trial. Tirosh A, Golan R, Harman-Boehm I, Henkin Y, Schwarzfuchs D, Rudich A, Kovsan J, Fiedler GM, Blüher M, Stumvoll M, Thiery J, Stampfer MJ, Shai I. Diabetes Care. 2013 Aug;36(8):2225-32. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/36/8/2225.long
Neither the Mediterranean diet, a low-fat diet nor a low-carbohydrate diet (where the protein intake amounted to 22% of the total energy intake) had any effect on the renal function of moderately obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes and serum creatinine levels <176µmol/L; whereas their glomerular filtration rates improved after the weight loss. This change was attributed to the improvement in the subjects’ insulin sensitivity and blood pressure induced by the weight loss.