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News in brief March 17, 2014

Increased protein intake and meal frequency reduces abdominal fat during energy balance and energy deficit. Arciero PJ, Ormsbee MJ, Gentile CL, Nindl BC, Brestoff JR, Ruby M. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Jul;21(7):1357-66. (USA). http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oby.20296/abstract

In this study on 30 overweight subjects, it was observed that increasing the protein content of the daily energy intake from 15% to 35% and the number of meals from 3 to 6 per day for 28 days had several beneficial effects. It decreased the subjects’ body fat and visceral fat, increased their lean mass and the process of post-prandial thermogenesis and enhanced their leptin levels.

 

Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss. Goss AM, Goree LL, Ellis AC, Chandler-Laney PC, Casazza K, Lockhart ME, Gower BA. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Jun;21(6):1139-42. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oby.20191/abstract

Low glycemic diets result in the loss of intra-abdominal fat during the weight mantenance  phase, especially in women. During the weight loss phase of low-calorie diets, low glycemic loads may improve the energy distribution by enhancing the fat mass to lean mass ratio in comparison with what occurs in subjects whose diets have a high glycemic content.

 

Benefits of caloric restriction for cardiometabolic health, including type 2 diabetes mellitus risk. Andreea Soare, Edward P. Weiss, Paolo Pozzilli. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2014; 30(Suppl. 1): 41–47. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dmrr.2517/abstract  

Caloric restriction has beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, decreases the fasting glycemic and insulin concentrations and prevents obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and chronic inflammation. A weight loss corresponding to only 5 to 10% of the initial weight suffices to improve these parameters. Low-calorie diets containing large amounts of vitamins, minerals, and lean proteins with low glycemic loads provide additional benefits.

 

Early dropout predictive factors in obesity treatment. Ilaria Michelini, Anna Giulia Falchi, Chiara Muggia, Ilaria Grecchi, Elisabetta Montagna, Annalisa De Silvestri and Carmine Tinelli. Nutrition Research and Practice (Nutr Res Pract) 2014;8(1):94-102. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3944162/

Unexpectedly, factors such as patients’ BMI, weight history, occupation and educational level do not predict whether they are likely to give up anti-obesity treatment. The most decisive factor detected using questionnaire GHQ-28 was high stress levels (which can result in compulsive eating habits). Before initiating treatment for obesity, it is essential to identify the causes of stress in order to prevent the risk of dropout.

 

Weight loss in obese adults 65 years and older: a review of the controversy. Waters DL1, Ward AL, Villareal DT. Exp Gerontol. 2013 Oct;48(10):1054-61. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0531556513000363

A 10% weight loss can be safely obtained in people aged 65 and more by combining a low-calorie diet with physical exercise for at least one year. Although most weight-loss  interventions of this kind seem to result in a slight loss of lean mass and bone mineral density (which have been reported to be non-significant), they seem to improve patients’ muscle quality and their physical performances. The inflammatory and metabolic markers tested here also showed improvements.

 

 

Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss. Goss AM, Goree LL, Ellis AC, Chandler-Laney PC, Casazza K, Lockhart ME, Gower BA. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Jun;21(6):1139-42. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oby.20191/abstract

Une alimentation à index glycémique bas induit une perte de graisse intra-abdominale durant le maintien de poids, en particulier chez des femmes. Au cours de la perte de poids (régime hypocalorique), elle pourrait affecter la répartition de l’énergie, en stimulant la proportion de  de masse grasse perdue par rapport à celle de masse maigre, comparée à une alimentation à index glycémique élevé.

 

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