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Knowledge Base & Citations

Knowledge Base & Citations

The Eurodiet Method has been developed over 20 Years of research and can be prescribed only by health professionals

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The Eurodiet method and its dietary advice is based on the following citations:


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2 Apfelbaum M., Bostsarron J. Energy balance of obese patients on a reducing diet. La presse médicale. 1969 Dec 6;77(52):1941-3.

3 Apfelbaum M., Boudon P., Lacatis D., Nillus P. Effets métaboliques de la diète protidique chez 41 sujets obèses. La presse médicale, 1970, 78, n° 44

4 Apfelbaum M., Bost-Sarron J., Brigant L., Dupin H. The composition of weight lost during the water diet. Effects of protein supplementation. Gastroenterologia. 1967;108(3):121-34.

5 Apfelbaum M. Treatment of obesity by protein diet. Sem Ther. 1968 Mar;44(3):174-6.

6 Bistrian DR., Blackburn GL., Stanbury JB. Metabolic aspects of a protein-sparing modified fast in the dietary management of Prader-Willi obesity. N Engl J Med. 1977 Apr 7;296(14):774-9.

7 Lidner PG., Blackburn GL. Multidisciplinary Approach to Obesity Utilizing Fasting Modified by Protein-Sparing Therapy. Obesity/Bariatric Med. Vol. 5, No. 6, 1976.

8 The National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity. Very Low-Calorie Diets. JAMA, August 25, 1993 – Vol. 270, No. 8

9 Bray GA., Bouchard C, James WPT Handbook of Obesity ; 878-881. Marcel Dekker, New York. 2nd ed. 2004

10 Henry Robert R., Gumbiner B. Benefit and Limitations of Very-Low-Calorie Diet Therapy in Obese NIDDM. Diabetes Care, Vol. 14, No. 9, September 1991.

11 Björntorp P., Brodoff BN. Obesity ; 683-707. J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphie, 1992.

12 Torgerson JS., Lissner L., Lindroos AK., et al. VLCD plus dietary and behavioural support versus support alone in the treatment of severe obesity. A randomised two-year clinical trial. Int J Obes 1997; 21: 987-994.

13 Kern PA. A prudent and practical approach to the treatment of obesity. J Ark Med Soc 1997; Oct;94(5):191-7.

14 Pekkarinen T, Takala I, Mustajoki P. Weight loss with very-low-calorie diet and cardiovascular risk factors in moderately obese women: one-year follow-up study including ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Int J Obes 1998 Jul;22(7):661-6.

15 Dessanzo V, Ravenna M, Olkies A, Meaglia D. Morbid Obesity. An Integral, Intensive and Ambulatory Approach. Results after 3 years in the Treatment of Extreme Obesity. Int J Obes. Volume 26. Supplement 1. August 2002; S101: 381.

16 Tschochner R, Keopold K, Hagen H, et al. Body Weight and Life-style Modification after a Weight Reduction Program. Int J Obes. Volume 26. Supplement 1. August 2002; S101: 384.

17 Olkies A, Ravenna M, Meaglia D. Obesity and Maintenance Program. Results after 3 years. Int J Obes. Volume 26. Supplement 1. August 2002; S101: 178

18 Beeson V, Kreitzman S, Blair B. Successful Long Term Management of Obesity in General Medical Practice. Int J Obes. Volume 22. Supplement 3. August 1998; S290: P742.

19 Saris Wim HM. Very-Low-Calorie Diets and Sustained Weight Loss. Obesity Research Vol. 9. Supplement 4. November 2001; 295S-301S.

20 Anderson JW., Vichitbandra S., Qian W., Kryscio RJ. Long-Term Weight Maintenance after an Intensive Weight-Loss Program. J American College of Nutrition, Vol. 18, No. 6, 620-627 (1999)

21 Lin WY,et al. Efficacy and safety of very-low-calorie diet in Taiwanese: a multicenter randomized, controlled trial. Nutrition. 2009 Nov-Dec;25(11-12):1129-36.

22 Moreno O, et al.Comparison of two low-calorie diets: a prospective study of effectiveness and safety. J Endocrinol Invest. 2006 Jul-Aug;29(7):633-40.

23 Zhou W., Mukherjee P., Kiebish MA., et al. The calorically restricted ketogenic diet, an effective alternative therapy for malignant brain cancer. Nutr Metab. 2007 Feb 21;4:5

24 Seyfried TN., Mukherjee P. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer: review and hypothesis. Nutr Metab. 2005 Oct 21;2:30

25 Mavropoulos JC., Isaacs WB., Pizzo SV., Freedland SJ. Is there a role for a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet in the management of prostate cancer? Urology. 2006 Jul;68(1):15-8


26 Mavropoulos JC., Yancy WS., Hepburn J., Westman EC. The effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on the polycystic ovary syndrome: A pilot study. Nutr Metab. 2005 Dec 16;2:35

27 Fuehrlein BS., Rutenberg MS., Silver JN., et al. Differential metabolic effects of saturated versus polyunsaturated fats in ketogenic diets. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Apr;89(4):1641-5

28 Stotland SC., Cousset F., Tranchant T. et al. Improvement in eating behaviour and emotional state predicts weight loss in obesity treatment. 2006. Obes. Rev. 7(S 2) p312

29 Astrup A, Rössner S. Lessons from obesity management programmes: greater initial weight loss improves long-term maintenance. Obesity Reviews 2000 1 (1), 17–19

30 Handjieva-Darlenska T, Handjiev S, Larsen T M, van Baak M A, Jebb S, Papadaki A, Pfeiffer A F H, Martinez J A, Kunesova M, Holst C, Saris W H M and Astrup A. Initial weight loss on an 800-kcal diet as a predictor of weight loss success after 8 weeks: the Diogenes study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2010) 64, 994–999

31 Marliss EB. Protein diets for obesity : metabolic and clinical aspects. C.M.A. Journal ; 119 : 1413-1420, 1978.

32 Adam-Perrot A. Clifton P. Brouns F. Low Carbohydrate diets: nutritional and physiological aspects. Obes. Rev. 2006. 7, 49-58.

33 Westman EC., Mavropoulos J., Yancy WS., Volek JS. A review of low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2003 Nov;5(6):476-83.

34 Volek JS., Westman EC. Very-low-carbohydrate weight-loss diets revisited. Clin J Med. 2002 Nov;69(11):849, 853, 856-8.

35 McClernon FJ., Yancy WS. Jr, Eberstein JA, et al. The effects of a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and a low-fat diet on mood, hunger, and other self-reported symptoms. Obesity. 2007 Jan;15(1):182-7

36 Foster GD., Wyatt HR., Hill JO., et al. A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348: 2082–90

37 Samaha FF., Iqbal N., Seshadri P., et al. A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348:2074–81

38 Scharrer E.. Control of food intake by fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. Nutrition ; 15 (9): 704-714, 1999.

39 Nair KS., Welle SL., Halliday D., Campbell RG. Effect of beta-hydroxybutyrate on whole-body leucine kinetics and fractional mixed skeletal muscle protein synthesis in humans. J Clin Invest. 1988 Jul;82(1):198-205

40 Manninen AH. Very-low-carbohydrate diets and preservation of muscle mass. Nutr Metab. 2006 Jan 31;3:9.

41 Stubbs RJ.. Peripheral signals affecting food intake. Nutrition ; 15 (7/8) : 614- 625, 1999.

42 Westman EC., Feinman RD., Mavropoulos JC., et al. Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Aug;86(2):276-84.

43 Yancy WS. Jr., Olsen MK., Dudley T., Westman EC. Acid-base analysis of individuals following two weight loss diets. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;61(12):1416-22. Epub 2007 Feb 14.

44 Bravata DM., Sanders L., Huang J., et al. Efficacy and safety of low-carbohydrate diets: a systematic review. JAMA. 2003 Apr 9;289(14):1837-50.

45 Hession M., Rolland C., Kulkarni U., et al. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat/low-calorie diets in the management of obesity and its comorbidities. Obesity Reviews 2009 10 (1): 36–50.

46 Anderson JW & al. Importance of Weight Management in Type 2 Diabetes: Review with Meta-analysis of Clinical Studies. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 2003 Vol. 22, No. 5, 331–339.

47 Dashti HM, Mathew TC, Khadada M, et al. Beneficial effects of ketogenic diet in obese diabetic subjects. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007 Apr 20

48 Boden G, Sargrad K, Homko C, et al. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on appetite, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes Ann Intern Med. 2005 Mar 15;142(6):403-11

49 Yancy WS Jr, Foy M, Chalecki AM, et al. A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet to treat type 2 diabetes. Nutr Metab. 2005 Dec 1;2:34

50 Gumbiner B, Wendel JA, McDermott MP. Effects of diet composition and ketosis on glycemia during very-low-energy-diet therapy in obese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus Am J Clin Nutr. 1996 Jan;63(1):110-5

51 Dashti HM & al. Ketogenic Diet Modifies the Risk Factors for Heart Disease in Obese Patients. Nutrition 19(2003): 901–902

52 Dashti HM & al. Long term effects of ketogenic diet in obese subjects. Exp Clin Cardiol 9 (2004): 200–205

53 Case CC, Jones PH, Nelson K, et al. Impact of weight loss on the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2002 Nov;4(6):407-14.

54 Xydakis AM, Case CC, Jones PH, et al. Adiponectin, inflammation, and the expression of the metabolic syndrome in obese individuals: the impact of rapid weight loss through caloric restriction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun;89(6):2697-703.

55 Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Gomez AL, et al. Comparison of a very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet on fasting lipids, LDL subclasses, insulin resistance, and postprandial lipemic responses in overweight women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Apr;23(2):177-84.

56 Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Forsythe CE. Modification of lipoproteins by very low-carbohydrate diets. J Nutr. 2005 Jun;135(6):1339-42.

57 Dashti HM, Al-Zaid NS, Mathew TC, et al. Long term effects of ketogenic diet in obese subjects with high cholesterol level. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Jun;286(1-2):1-9.

58 Westman EC, Yancy WS Jr, Olsen MK, et al. Effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet program compared to a low-fat diet on fasting lipoprotein subclasses. Int J Cardiol. 2006 Jun 16;110(2):212-6.

59 Yancy WS Jr, Olsen MK, Guyton JR, et al. A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004 May 18;140(10):769-77

60 Stern L, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, et al. The effects of low-carbohydrate versus conventional weight loss diets in severely obese adults: one-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004 May 18;140(10):778-85.

61 Sharman MJ, Volek JS. Weight loss leads to reductions in inflammatory biomarkers after a very-low-carbohydrate diet and a low-fat diet in overweight men. Clin Sci. 2004 Oct;107(4):365-9.

62 Volek, JS, Sharman MJ. Cardiovascular and hormonal aspects of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets. Obes Res. 2004 Nov;12 Suppl 2:115S-23S

63 Hammer S., Snel M., Lamb H.J., et al. Prolonged caloric restriction in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus decreases myocardial triglyceride content and improves myocardial function. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Sep 16;52(12):1006-12.

64 Jenkins DJ et al. (1981). Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 34; 362–366

65 Foster-Powell K., Holt S., Brand-Miller JC. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:5–56.

66 Salmerón J et al. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA. 1997 Feb 12;277(6):472-7.

67 O’Keefe JH, Gheewala, NM, O’Keefe, JO. Dietary Strategies for Improving Post-Prandial Glucose, Lipids, Inflammation, and Cardiovascular Health. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008 51: 249-255

68 Shai I, Schwarzfuchs D, Henkin Y, et al. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. The New England Journal of Medicine 2008 July 359 (3): 229–41.

69 Accurso A, Bernstein RK, Dahlqvist A, et al. Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal. Nutr Metab. 2008 Apr 8;5:9.

70 Nielsen JV, Joensson E. Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes. Stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 22 months follow-up. Nutrition & Metabolism 2006 3: 22.

71 FAO/WHO Expert consultation. Carbohydrates in human nutrition. April 1997. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization, 1998.

72 Hare-Bruun H, Flint A, Heitmann BL. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;84(4):871-9; quiz 952-3.

73 Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Feldman HA, et al. Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2007 May 16;297(19):2092-102.

74 Willett W, Manson J, Liu S. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;76(1):274S-80S.

75 Collier GR, Wolever TM, Wong GS, Josse RG. Prediction of glycemic response to mixed meals in noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1986 Sep;44(3):349-52.

76 Riccardi G, Rivellese AA, Giacco R. Role of glycemic index and glycemic load in the healthy state, in prediabetes, and in diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):269S-274S.

77 Livesey G, Taylor R, Hulshof T and Howlett J. Glycemic response and health—a systematic review and meta-analysis: relations between dietary glycemic properties and health outcomes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 87, No. 1, 258S-268S, January 2008

78 Maki KC, Rains TM, Kaden VN, et al. Effects of a reduced-glycemic-load diet on body weight, body composition, and cardiovascular disease risk markers in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar;85(3):724-34.

79 Leeds AR. Glycemic index and heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;76(1):286S-9S. Review.

80 Radulian G, Rusu E, Dragomir A and Posea M. Metabolic effects of low glycaemic index diets Nutr J. 2009; 8: 5.

81 Shai I, Schwarzfuchs D, Henkin Y, et al; Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT) Group. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jul 17;359(3):229-41.

82 WHO/FAO/UNU - Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition - WHO Technical Report Series 935 - Report of a Joint WHO/FAO/UNU Expert Consultation © World Health Organization 2007.

83 Leidy HJ, Carnell NS, Mattes RD, Campbell WW. Higher protein intake preserves lean mass and satiety with weight loss in pre-obese and obese women. Obesity. 2007 Feb;15(2):421-9

84 Layman DK, Evans E, Baum JI, et al. Dietary protein and exercise have additive effects on body composition during weight loss in adult women. J Nutr. 2005 Aug;135(8):1903-10.

85 Farnsworth E, Luscombe ND, Noakes M, et al. Effect of a high-protein, energy-restricted diet on body composition, glycemic control, and lipid concentrations in overweight and obese hyperinsulinemic men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jul;78(1):31-9.

86 Piatti PM, Monti LD, Magni F, et al. Hypocaloric high-protein diet improves glucose oxidation and spares lean body mass: comparison to hypocaloric high-carbohydrate diet. Metabolism ; 43 (12): 1481-7, 1994 Dec.

87 Marliss EB, Murray FT and Nakhooda AF. The metabolic response to hypocaloric protein diets in obese man. J. Clin. Invest.; 62 (2): 468-479, 1978.

88 Krieger, JW, Sitren, HS, Daniels, MJ, et al. Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a meta-regression. Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 260-274

89 Garcia-Salguero L, Lupianez JA. Metabolic adaptation of the renal carbohydrate metabolism: effects of high protein diet on the gluconeogenic and glycolytic fluxes in proximal and distal renal tubules. Molecular and cellular biochemistry; 90: 99-110, 1989

90 Toubro S., Bech C., Nielsen JJ., Hansen B. High protein intake based on conventional food may have an anabolic effects without renal or bone side effects. Poster in the ninth international congress on obesity, São Paulo, Brazil, 24-29 august, 2002.

91 Skov AR., Toubro S., Bülow J., et al. Changes in renal function during weight loss induced by high vs low-protein low-fat diets in overweight subjects. International Journal of Obesity; 1999. 23: 1170-1177

92 Rapport AFSSA 2007 : Apports en protéines : consommation, qualité, besoins et recommandations.

93 Attenburrow M.J., Williams C., Odontiadis J., et al. The effect of a nutritional source of tryptophan on dieting-induced changes in brain 5-HT function. Psychol Med. 2003. 33(8):1381-1386.

94 Heraief E., Burckhardt P., Mauron C., et al. The treatment of obesity by carbohydrate deprivation suppresses plasma tryptophan and its ratio to others large neutral amino acids. J Neural Transm. 1983. 57(3):187-195.

95 AFSSA. (2008) Avis du 16 juin 2009 (Saisine n° 2009-SA-0057) relatif à l’emploi de Trp à hauteur de 1000 mg dans les compléments alimentaires.

96 Scientific Committee for Food (1992), Nutrient and energy intakes for the European Community.

97 Avis AFSSA du 16 Juin 2009 – saisine 2009-sa-0057.

98 Rolls BJ, Hetherington M, Burley VJ. The specificity of satiety: the influence of foods of different macronutrient content on the development of satiety. Physiol Behav. 1988;43(2):145-53

99 Weigle DS, Breen PA, Matthys CC, et al. A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul;82(1):41-8.

100 Poppitt SD, McCormack D, Buffenstein R. Short-term effects of macronutrient preloads on appetite and energy intake in lean women. Physiol Behav. 1998 Jun 1;64(3):279-85

101 Stubbs RJ. Peripheral signals affecting food intake. Nutrition. 15 (7/8): 614-625, 1999.

102 Liddle RA, Green GM, Conrad CK, Williams JA. Proteins but not amino acids, carbohydrates, or fats stimulate cholecystokinin secretion in the rat. Am J Physiol. 1986 Aug;251(2 Pt 1):G243-8.

103 Blom WA, Lluch A, Stafleu A, et al. Effect of a high-protein breakfast on the postprandial ghrelin response. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Feb;83(2):211-20.

104 Stubbs RJ. Macronutrient effects on appetite. Int J Obes 1995; 19: (Suppl 5) S11-S19

105 Due A, Toubro S, Skov AR, Astrup A. Effect of normal-fat diets, either medium or high in protein, on body weight in overweight subjects: a randomised 1-year trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Oct;28(10):1283-90.

106 Layman DK, Boileau RA, Erickson DJ, et al. A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women. J Nutr. 2003 Feb;133(2):411-7.

107 Skov AR, Toubro S, Ronn B, et al. Randomized trial on protein vs carbohydrate in ad libitum fat reduced diet for the treatment of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999 May;23(5):528-36

108 Noakes M, Keogh JB, Foster PR, Clifton PM. Effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diet relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight loss, body composition, nutritional status, and markers of cardiovascular health in obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jun;81(6):1298-306.

109 Astrup A. The satiating power of protein--a key to obesity prevention? Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul;82(1):1-2.

110 Farnsworth E, Luscombe ND, Noakes M, et al. Effect of a high-protein, energy-restricted diet on body composition, glycemic control, and lipid concentrations in overweight and obese hyperinsulinemic men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jul;78(1):31-9.

111 Larsen T et al. Diets with High or Low Protein Content and Glycemic Index for Weight-Loss Maintenance. N Engl J Med 2010;363:2102-13.

112 Papadaki A. et al. The Effect of Protein and Glycemic Index on Children’s Body Composition: The DiOGenes Randomized Study. Pediatrics Volume 126, Number 5, November 2010

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139 Guidelines of the Scientific Committee on Food for the development of tolerable upper intake levels for vitamins and minerals (adopted on 19 October 2000)